Ustilago   Background Ustilago is the largest genus of the Ustilaginaceae in the order of smut fungi, Ustilaginales, with about 200 currently accepted species (Vánky 2013). Ustilago and related genera contain many important plant pathogens that destroy the inflorescence or culms of grasses (Poaceae) (Vánky 2011). Some agriculturally...

Puccinia Background Puccinia is the type genus of the family Pucciniaceae in the order of rust fungi, Pucciniales (Basidiomycota). Puccinia has approximately 4,000 named species (Kirk et al. 2008) and is a widespread genus of plant pathogens that have shaped history. For example, Puccinia graminis, the type...

Pyrenophora   Background Pyrenophora represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi associated with a wide variety of substrates. Fries (1849) list the genus as Pyrenophora typified with Pyrenophora phaeocomes. The genus Pyrenophora clusters in the suborder Pleosporineae of the family Pleosporaceae (Berbee 1996; Zhang and Berbee 2001; Hyde...

Gilbertella   Background The monotypic genus Gilbertella belongs to the family Choanephoraceae and subfamily Gilbertelloideae (Mucorales, former Zygomycota). It was established by Hesseltine (1960) for species described earlier as Choanephora persicaria by Eddy (1925), and consequently, the type species of the genus is Gilbertella persicaria. Benny (1991) proposed...

Diplodia   Background Species of Diplodia (Botryosphaeriaceae) are endophytes, pathogens, or saprobes associated with cankers, dieback and fruit rot (Crous et al. 2006; Slippers and Wingfield 2007) in a wide range of hosts of agricultural and forestry importance (Farr and Rossman 2014). Cryptic speciation is common in the...

Diaporthe   Background Diaporthe (=Phomopsis) is a cosmopolitan genus of fungi comprised of endophytes, plant pathogens, and saprobes occurring on a wide range of annual and perennial hosts, including economically important crops (Uecker 1988; Farr and Rossman 2014; Udayanga et al. 2011). The genus belongs to class Sordariomycetes,...

Choanephora Background The genus Choanephora belongs to family Choanephoraceae in the order Mucorales (former Zygomycota). The genus was introduced by Currey (1873) for C. cunninghamii, to replace the generic name of his newly described species Cunninghamia infundibulifera, as Cunninghamia already existed as a genus of conifers. Because...

Botrytis Background Erected by Micheli in 1729, the genus Botrytis is one of the first described genera of fungi. Persoon (1801) designated five species under the binomial system of Linnaeus validated the genus and included one of Micheli’s species, B. cinerea, so named by Von Haller (1771)....

Ilyonectria P. Chaverri & Salgado, in Chaverri et al., Stud. Mycol. 68:69 (2011) Species of Ilyonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales) are important soil-borne pathogens of various woody and herbaceous plant hosts. Ilyonectria species are cosmopolitan and are found on a wide range of hosts (Chaverri et al. 2011)....

Sphaeropsis Sacc., Michelia 2: 105. 1880. The genus Sphaeropsis was introduced by Saccardo (1880) (for species of Diplodia with brown, aseptate conidia), with S. visci as the type species. Sphaeropsis is the asexual morph of Phaeobotryosphaeria (Phillips et al. 2008, 2013; Wijayawardene et al. 2017). Species...

Rosellinia De Not., G. bot. ital.1 (1): 334(1844) Rosellinia (Xylariaceae) species are characterized mainly as saprobes, some endophytes and occasionally as pathogens. They have a worldwide distribution and common in both temperate and tropical regions (Petrini 1993, 2013; Hoopen and Krauss 2006). Plant pathogenic Roselleina species...

Pseudopestalotiopsis Maharachch., K.D. Hyde & Crous (2014), in Marachchikumbura et al., in Maharachchikumbura et al., Stud. Mycol. 79:180(2014) The genus was introduced by Maharachchikumbura et al. (2014b) with Pseudopestalotiopsis theae (Sawada) Maharachch., K.D. Hyde & Crous as the type species. Species of Pseudopestalotiopsis are appendage-bearing phenotypically...

Plasmopara J. Schröt., in Cohn, Krypt.-Fl. Schlesien 3.1(9–16): 236 (1886) [1889] The genus Plasmopara belongs to the family Peronosporaceae of the Peronosporales in Oomycetes (Riethmu¨ller et al. 2002; Görg et al. 2017). This genus is included in this study as it is an important plant pathogen...

Neopestalotiopsis Maharachch., K.D. Hyde & Crous (2014), in Maharachchikumbura et al., Stud. Mycol. 79:147 (2014) Neopestalotiopsis is an important plant pathogenic, saprobic and endophytic genus commonly present in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. The genus was introduced by Maharachchikumbura et al. (2014b). Species of Neopestalotiopsis are appendage-bearing...

Neonectria Wollenw., Annls mycol. 15(1/2):52 (1917) Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus, and their asexual morphs are common in tropical and temperate regions (Chaverri et al. 2011). Neonectria species can be found on the bark of recently dead woody plants and sometimes on decaying herbaceous material (Samuels...

Medeolaria Thaxt., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci. 57(17): 432 (1922) The genus Medeolaria belongs to the family Medeolariaceae (Medeolariales, Leotiomycetes, Ascomycota). Medeolaria was introduced by Thaxter (1921) and typified with Medeolaria farlowii. Medeolaria species are pathogens of Medeola virginiana (Liliaceae). Currently, the known distribution of...

Macrophomina Petr., Annls mycol. 21: 314 (1923) Species of Macrophomina are mostly pathogens that cause damping-off, seedling blight, collar rot, stem rot, charcoal rot, basal stem rot and root rot in many plant species (Arora et al. 2001; Pal et al. 2001; Gupta et al. 2002;...

Eutiarosporella Crous, in Crous et al., Phytotaxa 202(2): 85 (2015) Eutiarosporella was introduced by Crous et al. (2015) and is typified by Eutiarosporella tritici (B. Sutton & Marasas) Crous on Triticum aestivum from South Africa. The genus was named on account of its similarity to Tiarosporella...

Entoleuca Syd., Annls mycol. 20(3/4):186 (1922) The genus Entoleuca Syd. (Xylariaceae) consists of saprobic and plant pathogenic species distributed in Europe. Entoleuca mammata causes canker diseases (commonly known as Hypoxylon canker) on Malus sp. (Rosaceae), Populus sp., Salix sp. (Salicaceae) and Sorbus sp. (Rosaceae) (Shaw 1973;...

Dactylonectria L. Lombard & Crous, in Lombard et al., Phytopath. Mediterr. 53(3): 523 (2014) The genus Dactylonectria was introduced by Lombard et al. (2014) for a group of species which were previously treated in Ilyonectria (Chaverri et al. 2011; Cabral et al. 2012a, b, c). In...

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