Dothiorella Sacc., Michelia 2(6): 5 (1880)

Dothiorella was proposed by Saccardo to accommodate D. pyrenophora (Hyde et al. 2014). Members of this genus are pathogens, endophytes and saprobes (Phillips et al. 2013; Dissanayake et al. 2016). Taxonomy of this genus has been in a state of flux for decades (Phillips et al. 2013). Sivanesan (1984) treated D. pyrenophora as a synonym of Dothichiza sorbi (asexual morph of Dothiora pyrenophora). However, Sivanesan (1984) was referring to Dothiorella pyrenophora Sacc. (1884) which, according to Sutton (1977), is a later homonym of Dothiorella pyrenophora Sacc. (1880). Crous and Palm (1999) studied the holotype of D. pyrenophora and considered it a synonym of Diplodia. However, Phillips et al. (2005) based on both morphological and molecular data revived the genus Dothiorella for species in which the conidia become brown and 1-septate while attached to the conidiogenous cells.

ClassificationDothideomycetes, incertae sedis, Botryosphaeriales, Botryosphaeriaceae

Type speciesDothiorella pyrenophora Berk. ex Sacc., Michelia 2 (6): 5 (1880) (1909)

Distribution – Worldwide

Disease symptoms – Diebacks, cankers, fruit rots.

Hosts – Plurivorous on woody hosts.


Morphological based identification and diversity

Species of this genus were mostly described based on host association, which has led to the introduction of many species names and currently there are 393 epithets in Index Fungorum (2019). Slippers et al. (2013) suggested that host association cannot be considered as an important factor in species delimitation, many names are likely to be synonyms. Phillips et al. (2008) introduced a new genus Spencermartinsia to accommodate dothiorella-like species with apiculate ascospores. However, Yang et al. (2017) based on six-gene phylogeny and a broad taxon sampling considered that Spencermartinsia should be treated as a synonym of Dothiorella. Phillips et al. (2013) listed all cultures available for this genus and provided a phylogenetic tree and a key to the species. In that study 13 species, names and 16 unnamed lineages were listed. Hyde et al. (2014), Dissanayake et al. (2016) and Yang et al. (2017) provided updates for the genus. Hyde et al. (2014) accepted 19 species and Dissanayake et al. (2016) accepted 30 species in the genus. After making Spencermartinsia a synonym of Dothiorella Yang et al. (2017) accepted 36 species in this genus.

Phillips et al. (2013) differentiated 13 Dothiorella species on the basis of conidiomata and conidial dimensions. However, the dimensions of these characters overlap between species. Therefore, using morphology alone without molecular data is not suitable to define species.


Molecular based identification and diversity

Recent studies have re-evaluated this genus based on multi-gene phylogeny of ITS, TUB2 and tef1 sequence data. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Dothiorella based on analyses of a combined ITS and tef1 sequence data (Table, Fig). The phylogenetic tree is updated with recently introduced Dothiorella species and corresponds to previous studies (Dissanayake et al. 2016; Yang et al. 2017; Hyde et al. 2019; Phookamsak et al. 2019). In the analyses, it appears that several species are synonyms, such as D. parva/D. guttulata and D. rhamni/D. eriobotryae and possibly others. Therefore, a thorough revision of the genus is recommended to clarify the status of these dubious species.


Recommended genetic markers (genus level) – SSU and LSU

Recommended genetic markers (species level) – ITS and tef1


Accepted number of species: Currently, 393 species names are listed for Dothiorella in Index Fungorum (2019). Cultures and DNA sequences are available for 46 species, therefore 46 species are currently accepted in Dothiorella.


References: Phillips et al. 2013; Dissanayake et al. 2016 (morphology, phylogeny, distribution, hosts), Yang et al. 2017 (morphology and phylogeny)


Table Details of the Dothiorella isolates used in the phylogenetic analyses. Ex-type (ex-epitype) strains are in bold and marked with an asterisk* and voucher strains are in bold.

Species Isolate/Voucher No ITS tef1
Dothiorella acacicola CBS 141295 KX228269 KX228376
D. acericola KUMCC 18-0137* MK359449 MK361182
D. alpina CGMCC 3.18001* KX499645 KX499651
D. americana CBS 128309* HQ288218 HQ288262
D. brevicollis CBS 130411* JQ239403 JQ239390
D. californica CBS 141587* KX357188 KX357211
D. capri-amissi CMW 25403* EU101323 EU101368
D. casuarinae CBS 120688* DQ846773 DQ875331
D. citricola ICMP16828* EU673323 EU673290
D. dulcispinae CBS 130413* JQ239400 JQ239387
D. eriobotryae CBS 140852* KT240287 KT240262
D. guttulataa MFLUCC 17-0242 KY797637
D. iberica CBS 115041* AY573202 AY573222
D. iranica IRAN1587C* KC898231 KC898214
D. italica MFLUCC 17-0951 MG828897 MG829267
D. juglandis CBS 188.87 EU673316 EU673283
D. lampangensis MFLUCC 18-0232 MK347758 MK340869
D. longicollis CBS 122068* EU144054 EU144069
D. magnoliae CFCC 51563 KY111247 KY213686
D. mangifericola IRAN1584C* KC898221 KC898204
D. moneti MUCC505* EF591920 EF591971
D. neclivorem DAR80992* KJ573643 KJ573640
D. oblonga CMW 25407* EU101300 EU101345
D. omnivora CBS 140349* KP205497 KP205470
D. parva IRAN1579C* KC898234 KC898217
D. plurivora IRAN1557C* KC898225 KC898208
D. pretoriensis CBS 130404* JQ239405 JQ239392
D. prunicola CBS 124723* EU673313 EU673280
D. rhamni MFLUCC 14-0902* KU246381
D. rosulata CBS 121760* EU101290 EU101335
D. santali MUCC 509* EF591924 EF591975
D. sarmentorum IMI63581b* AY573212 AY573235
D. sempervirentis IRAN1583C* KC898236 KC898219
D. striata ICMP16824* EU673320 EU673287
D. styphnolobii JZB3150013* MH880849 MK069594
D. symphoricarposicola MFULCC 13-0497* KJ742378 KJ742381
D. tectonae MFLUCC12-0382* KM396899 KM409637
D. thailandica CBS 133991* JX646796 JX646861
D. thripsita BRIP 51876* FJ824738 KJ573639
D. ulmacea CBS 138855* KR611881 KR611910
D. uruguayensis CBS 124908* EU080923 EU863180
D. vidmadera DAR78992* EU768874 EU768881
D. vinea-gemmae DAR81012* KJ573644 KJ573641
D. viticola CBS 117009* AY905554 AY905559
D. westrale DAR80529* HM009376 HM800511
D. yunnana CGMCC 3.17999* KX499643 KX499649

a the tef1 sequence of D. guttulata in GenBank is incorrect, therefore was not included in the analyses.


Fig. Phylogenetic tree generated by maximum parsimony analysis of combined ITS and tef1 sequence data of Dothiorella species. Related sequences were obtained from GenBank. Forty-eight strains are included in the analyses, which comprised 873 characters including gaps. The tree was rooted with Neofusicoccum parvum (CMW9081) and N. mangiferae (CMW7024). The maximum parsimonious dataset consisted of 572 constant, 204 parsimony-informative and 97 parsimony-uninformative characters. The parsimony analysis of the data matrix resulted in the maximum of ten equally most parsimonious trees with a length of 891 steps (CI = 0.532, RI 0.738, RC = 0.393, HI = 0.468) in the first tree. MP and ML bootstrap values ≥50% and Bayesian posterior probabilities ≥0.90 are shown respectively near the nodes. The scale bar indicates 10 changes per site. Ex-type strains are in bold.

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